CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 453

_id ijac20086405
id ijac20086405
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Fleischmann, Moritz
year 2008
title Elemental Methods for Integrated Architectures: Experimentation with Design Processes for Cable Net Structures
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 6 - no. 4, 453-475
summary Tension active systems are compelling architectural structures having an intimate connection between structural performance and the arrangement of material. The direct flow of structural forces through the material makes these systems attractive and unique from an aesthetic point of view, but they are a challenge to develop from a design and an engineering perspective. Traditional methods for solving such structural systems rely on both analog modeling techniques and the use of highly advanced engineering software. The complexity and laborious nature of both processes presents a challenge for iterating through design variations. To experiment with the spacemaking capabilities of tension active systems, it is necessary to design methods that can actively couple the digital simulation with the analog methods for building the physical structure. What we propose is a designer-authored process that digitally simulates the behaviors of tension active systems using simple geometric components related to material and structural performance, activated and varied through elemental techniques of scripting. The logics for manufacturing and assembly are to be embedded in the digital generation of form. The intention is to transform what is a highly engineered system into an architectural system where investigation is as much about the determination of space and environment as it is about the arrangement of structure and material.
series journal
last changed 2009/03/03 06:48

_id breen02_paper_eaea2007
id breen02_paper_eaea2007
authors Breen, Jack
year 2008
title Viewing Models in Architecture
source Proceedings of the 8th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference
summary If we wish to understand the workings of design interventions, it may be opportune to simulate their effects using specialised techniques, such as Endoscopy or Computer Aided Modes of representation. In such undertakings, the method of study will generally involve the active use of some sort of a model. Models of all sorts are used extensively throughout architectural design, research and education. How such a model is conceived and executed is closely linked to the function it is to serve. This may concern design driven exploration, testing or communication, to name but a few of the options.
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id ddss2008-46
id ddss2008-46
authors Sharma, Shrikant B. and Vincent Tabak
year 2008
title Rapid Agent Based Simulation of People Flow forDesign of SpacesAnalysis, Design and Optimisation
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper presents a novel static-dynamic network based people flow simulation model applied to design optimisation of circulation spaces within buildings and urban areas. In the current state of art the majority of existing people flow simulation models are driven by analysis rather than design. This is fine for simpler, evacuation type scenarios where a single or a few analyses runs are sufficient to determine the evacuation time. For more complex scenarios such as crowd circulation with complex multi-directional flow, one is as interested in the sensitivity of various design and stochastic behavioural parameters, so the rapid modelling simulations together with design capability become important. This paper presents a simplified network based people flow model that enables rapid simulations and therefore iterative design optimization of circulation space. The work integrates the techniques of graph-theory based network analysis with an origin-destination matrix model of crowd flow, to provide a rapid, parametric model. The resulting model can be analysed in a static as well as dynamic state. In the static state, the model analyses space based on connectivity of nodes, superimposed with the origin-destination matrix of population to provide valuable information such as footfalls, density maps, as well as quasi-static parameters such as mean flow rates. In the dynamic state, the model allows time-dependent analysis of flow using a detailed agent based simulation that also incorporates dynamic route-choice modelling, agent behaviours and interaction, and stochastic variations. The paper presents the integrated modelling technique and its implementation into simulation software SMART Move.
keywords People Flow, Pedestrian, Agent Based Simulation, Evacuation, Network, Optimisation
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id acadia08_376
id acadia08_376
authors Silver, Mike
year 2008
title The Most Important Airplane In The History Of Architecture
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 376-381
summary Composite structures consist of high strength carbon threads held together in a matrix of epoxy resin or thermoplastics. Surfaces made from these materials are typically 10 times lighter and 1.5 times stronger than aluminum. Both simple and highly contoured shapes possessing extreme strength can be produced using a computer controlled fiber placement machine (FPM). These incredibly thin, corrosion resistant membranes require little or no supplemental support to manage loads and enclose space. The computer’s ability to determine the precise location of each fiber strand in a fiber placed part also facilitates unprecedented control of its aesthetic and functional properties. Fiber placement technology integrates building components that would normally be separated into clearly distinct systems. Here ornament, structure and cladding are collapsed into one material process. This paper explores the architectural potential of a technology normally reserved for aerospace applications through research conducted in close collaboration with fiber placement engineers at Automated Dynamics in Schenectady, New York (ADC).
keywords Composite; Digital Fabrication; Fiber; Skin; Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id bbc9
id bbc9
authors Aeck, Richard
year 2008
title Turnstijl Houses & Cannoli Framing
source VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft Co. KG, Germany

ISBN: 3639078470 ISBN-13: 9783639078473

summary This work presumes that integrating modeling tools and digital fabrication technology into architectural practice will transform how we build the detached house. Single-family houses come in all shapes and sizes, and in doing so, imply variation as well in certain materials, methods, and lighter classes of structure. Ultimately, houses are extensions, if not expressions, of those dwelling within, yet our attempts to produce appealing manufactured houses have prioritized standardization over variation and fall short of this ideal. Rather than considering new offerings born of the flexibility and precision afforded by digital production, sadly, today’s homebuilders are busy using our advancing fabrication technology to hasten the production of yesterday’s home. In response to such observations, and drawing upon meta-themes (i.e., blending and transition) present in contemporary design, this study proposes a hybrid SIP/Lam framing system and a corresponding family of houses. The development of the Cannoli Framing System (CFS) through 3D and physical models culminates in the machining and testing of full-scale prototypes. Three demonstrations, branded the Turnstijl Houses, are generated via a phased process where their schema, structure, and system geometry are personalized at their conception. This work pursues the variation of type and explores the connection between type and production methodology. Additional questions are also raised and addressed, such as how is a categorical notion like type defined, affected, and even “bred”?
keywords Digital Manufacturing, Type, Typology, CNC, SIP, SIPs, Foam, PreFab, Prefabrication, Framing, Manufactured House, Modular, Packaged House, Digital, Plywood, Methodology
series thesis:MSc
type normal paper
email raeck@branchoff.net
more http://branchoff.net
last changed 2010/11/16 07:29

_id sigradi2008_080
id sigradi2008_080
authors Andrés, Roberto
year 2008
title Hybrid Art > Synthesized Architecture
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper investigates possible intersections between some contemporary artistic modalities and architectural practice. At first, it describes and discusses different uses of art in architectural history. Through the analyzes of Le Corbusier’s artistic and architectural practices, it observes the limits of looking at art as only ‘inspiration’ for architectural form and points to the necessity of surpassing this formal approach. More than bringing pictorial ‘inspiration’, art, as a experimental field, can change our architectural procedures and approaches - a much richer and powerful addition to the development of architecture. It discusses then, the confluence of architecture, information and communication technologies. Very commonly present in our contemporary life, not only on the making of architecture – computer drawings and modeling of extravagant buildings – nor in ‘automated rooms’ of the millionaire’s houses. Televisions, telephones and computers leave the walls of our houses “with as many holes as a Swiss cheese”, as Flusser has pointed. The architecture has historically manipulated the way people interact, but this interaction now has been greatly changed by new technologies. Since is inevitable to think the contemporary world without them, it is extreme urgent that architects start dealing with this whole universe in a creative way. Important changes in architecture occur after professionals start to research and experiment with different artistic medias, not limiting their visions to painting and sculpture. The main hypothesis of this paper is that the experiments with new media art can bring the field of architecture closer to information and communication technologies. This confluence can only take form when architects rise questions about technology based interaction and automation during their creative process, embodying these concepts into the architecture repertoire. An educational experience was conducted in 2007 at UFMG Architecture School, in Brazil, with the intention of this activity was to allow students to research creatively with both information technology and architecture. The students’ goal was to create site-specific interventions on the school building, using physical and digital devices. Finally, the paper contextualizes this experience with the discussion above exposed. Concluding with an exposition of the potentialities of some contemporary art modalities (specially the hybrid ones) in qualifying architectural practices.
keywords Architecture; Information and Communication Technologies; Digital Art; Site Specific Art; Architectural Learning.
series SIGRADI
email robertoandres@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2016_450
id sigradi2016_450
authors Araujo, André L.; Celani, Gabriela
year 2016
title Exploring Weaire-Phelan through Cellular Automata: A proposal for a structural variance-producing engine
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.710-714
summary Complex forms and structures have always been highly valued in architecture, even much before the development of computers. Many architects and engineers have strived to develop structures that look very complex but at the same time are relatively simple to understand, calculate and build. A good example of this approach is the Beijing National Aquatics Centre design for the 2008 Olympic Games, also known as the Water Cube. This paper presents a proposal for a structural variance-producing engine using cellular automata (CA) techniques to produce complex structures based on Weaire-Phelan geometry. In other words, this research evaluates how generative and parametric design can be integrated with structural performance in order to enhance design flexibility and control in different stages of the design process. The method we propose was built in three groups of procedures: 1) we developed a method to generate several fits for the two Weaire-Phelan polyhedrons using CA computation techniques; 2) through the finite elements method, we codify the structural analysis outcomes to use them as inputs for the CA algorithm; 3) evaluation: we propose a framework to compare how the final outcomes deviate for the good solutions in terms of structural performance and rationalization of components. We are interested in knowing how the combination of the procedures could contribute to produce complex structures that are at the same time certain rational. The system developed allows the structural analysis of structured automatically generated by a generative system. However, some efficient solutions from the structural performance point of view do not necessarily represent a rational solution from the feasibility aspects.
keywords Structural design; Complex structures; Bottom-up design approach
series SIGraDi
email a.araujo@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2017/06/21 12:18

_id cdc2008_329
id cdc2008_329
authors Araya, Sergio
year 2008
title Algorithmic Transparency
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 329-340
summary This paper describes the procedures developed in the creation of an innovative technique to design and manufacture composite materials with transparency and translucency properties. The long term objective of this research is to develop a method to design and fabricate architectural elements. The immediate objective is to develop the methodology and procedural techniques to design and manufacture a composite material with controlled non homogeneous transparency properties. A secondary objective is to explore different levels of “embedded behavior” or responsiveness by using these techniques to combine different physical material properties on new designed “smarter” and “responsive” composite materials.
email sergio_a@mit.edu
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id caadria2018_033
id caadria2018_033
authors Bai, Nan and Huang, Weixin
year 2018
title Quantitative Analysis on Architects Using Culturomics - Pattern Study of Prizker Winners Based on Google N-gram Data
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 257-266
summary Quantitative studies using the corpus Google Ngram, namely Culturomics, have been analyzing the implicit patterns of culture changes. Being the top-standard prize in the field of Architecture since 1979, the Pritzker Prize has been increasingly diversified in the recent years. This study intends to reveal the implicit pattern of Pritzker Winners using the method of Culturomics, based on the corpus of Google Ngram to reveal the relationship of the sign of their fame and the fact of prize-winning. 48 architects including 32 awarded and 16 promising are analyzed in the printed corpus of English language between 1900 and 2008. Multiple regression models and multiple imputation methods are used during the data processing. Self-Organizing Map is used to define clusters among the awarded and promising architects. Six main clusters are detected, forming a 3×2 network of fame patterns. Most promising architects can be told from the clustering, according to their similarity to the more typical prize winners. The method of Culturomics could expand the sight of architecture study, giving more possibilities to reveal the implicit patterns of the existing empirical world.
keywords Culturomics; Google Ngram; Pritzker Prize; Fame Pattern; Self-Organizing Map
series CAADRIA
email bn16@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id sigradi2008_103
id sigradi2008_103
authors Baltazar, Ana Paula; Maria Lucia Malard, Silke Kapp, Pedro Schultz
year 2008
title From physical models to immersive collaborative environments: testing the best way for homeless people to visualise and negotiate spaces
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper describes an experiment to investigate the best way for lay people to use representation to visualise and negotiate space. It was motivated by our observations in workshops for digital inclusion in the context of a housing project for a homeless association. Computers were used to make it easier for the community to understand and change the spaces in real time. The first workshops proved that our approach was efficient as an exercise but not certainly effective concerning the understanding of spatial qualities. So we have designed an experiment to compare the usability of different media in participatory design processes. For that we have adapted the ‘Usability’ methodology, which is fully described in the paper. We started with three main questions. The first concerned the effectiveness of different media to represent spatial quality; the second concerned the best way for novices to approach space, whether by refurbishing a pre-existing space or by starting from the scratch; and the third concerned the effectiveness of negotiation by means of discourse and by means of or action. We also had two main hypothesis: one coming from research on digital environments and stereo visualisation, indicating that the more people feel immersed in the represented environment the more they are able to correlate it with physical space; and the other coming from our own observations in the participatory design workshops, in which the collective decision-making was manipulated by those people with more advanced communication skills who use their ability in an authoritative way regardless of the relevance of what they have to say. This paper describes the whole experiment, which was an exercise of spatial negotiation in 5 versions. In the first version we provided fixed digital views of a room in plan and axonometry; for another two versions we provided a physical model of the room in 1:10 scale, with some pieces of the existing furniture in different scales. This was done to check if people were just playing with a puzzle or actually grasping the correspondence between representation and the object or the space represented. One version proposes refurbishment and the other starts from the scratch. And the last two versions repeated the same task made with the physical model, but this time using a 3D interactive digital model. People were required not only to organise the furniture in the space but also to build a full scale cardboard structure and organise the real furniture reproducing their proposed model. Their comments on the spaces they had built confronted with what they had imaged when working with the model has enabled us to compare the different models, as also the different ways of negotiating spaces. This paper describes this experiment in detail concluding that 3D digital interactive models are far more effective than physical models and 2D drawings; when negotiation happens by means of action it provides more creative results than when the discoursive practice prevails; people are more creative when they start something from scratch, though they spend more time. The results of this experiment led us to formulate a new hypothesis leading to the development of an immersive collaborative environment using stereoscopy.
keywords Visualisation, negotiation, immersive environment, digital interfaces, homeless people
series SIGRADI
email anapaulabaltazar@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id barakat_theses_eaea2007
id barakat_theses_eaea2007
authors Barakat, Husam
year 2008
title Analytical Study of the Projects of Students in the Architectural Design - Comparision Between Physical and Digital Models
source Proceedings of the 8th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference
summary Since its foundation in 1981, Architectural faculty has adopted traditional teaching methods for practical subjects such as architectural design and Urban planning. In these subjects, students submitted their projects and exams on (chanson) and (calk) sheets using various drawing tools. Such tools are still in use by students up to date in manually architectural concept presentation. This comes after the students pass a number of subjects related to art and engineering drawing that help the students in gaining drawing representation and rendering skills.
keywords architectural concept, traditional teaching, computer technology
series EAEA
email barakath@baath.shern.net
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id ddss2008-09
id ddss2008-09
authors Bates-Brkljac, N.
year 2008
title Towards client-focused architectural representationsas a facilitator for improved design decision-makingprocess
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper focuses on architectural representations as a means of communicating design schemes in the process of decision-making. It reports on the study, which investigated people’s responses to different forms of architectural representations. The paper starts with the discussion about participation in decision-making process and the potential benefits of using computer generated representations. Then, it describes the research study and examines results of the investigation. In the final section it is argued that client focused architectural representations are needed to support the exchange of views and discussion amongst different stakeholders in order to reduce the requirement for trained interpretation and encourage the participation in the decision making process.
keywords Architectural representations, Perceived credibility, Design decision making
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ecaade2008_083
id ecaade2008_083
authors Belcher, Daniel; Johnson, Brian R.
year 2008
title ARchitectureView
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 561-568
summary We present a system for viewing architectural building models – specifically Building Information Modeling (BIM) models – in 3D using an Augmented Reality Tangible User Interface (TUI) and a Magic Lens interaction metaphor. ARchitectureView is meant to facilitate communication and collaboration around a shared model. We present the system overview and a number of use scenarios in which the interface would serve to improve communication across disciplines and varied technical backgrounds, while supporting a rich and coherent common understanding.
keywords Augmented Reality, Building Information Modeling, Magic Lens, Tangible User Interface
series eCAADe
email belchd@u.washington.edu, brj@u.washington.edu
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
email mateusbeck@pop.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ijac20076104
id ijac20076104
authors Benoudjit, Mohamed Amine; Coates, Paul S.
year 2008
title Artificial networks for spatial analysis
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 6 - no. 1, pp. 59-78
summary This paper tests digital representation techniques which can be used by artificial neural networks in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment to analyze and classify architectural spaces. We developed two techniques for encoding volumetric data: vertex representation and feature space representation, as input for artificial neural networks. We tested how two different kinds of artificial neural networks, perceptron networks and self-organizing maps, could recognize given shapes in these representational formats. We have found that a one-layer perceptron can be used to classify shapes even when presented with input vectors composed of real numbers. These spatial representation techniques provide a method for using ANNs for architectural purposes.
series journal
last changed 2008/06/18 06:12

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia08_308
id acadia08_308
authors Berrier, Seth; Gary Meyer; Clement Shimizu
year 2008
title Creating Metallic Color Sequences for an Architectural Wall
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 308-315
summary A metallic paint scheme for an architectural wall is created using computer aided color appearance design techniques. New computer graphic hardware that allows real-time rendering of complex reflectance functions is employed to produce photo-realistic images of the metallic paint applied to the surface of the wall. An interpolation scheme is developed that permits one and two dimensional metallic shade sequences to be determined between individual bricks in a single row of the wall and between the complete rows of bricks that compose the wall. Paint formulation software, originally developed for auto refinish applications, is used to determine the paint mixtures necessary to realize the metallic colors in the design. A prototype of the wall is constructed and exhibited in a museum gallery.
keywords Color; Design; Environment; Perception; System
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id cdc2008_129
id cdc2008_129
authors Breen, Jack and Julian Breen
year 2008
title The Medium Is the Matter: Critical Observations and Strategic Perspectives at Half-time
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 129-136
summary This paper critically re-views the professional impact and functionality of the pervasive digital ‘matter’ we have come to believe we can no longer do without. On the basis of a playful exploration of the first ‘half-century’ of our digital age, an attempt is made to draw new perspectives for the next ’level’ of our digital culture in a broader (multi)media perspective and more specifically: the domains of Architecture. To stimulate an open-minded ‘second-half’ debate, the paper puts forward some potentially promising (and hopefully provocative) conceptions and strategies for imaginative interface applications and game-based architectural study initiatives. Furthermore, the paper proposes the establishment of a new cultural platform for the exchange of Critical Digital hypotheses and the evolvement of visionary design concepts through creative digital innovation, with the (inter)active involvement of older and younger team-players…
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

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