CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ascaad2010_279
id ascaad2010_279
authors Celani, G.; L. Medrano; J. Spinelli
year 2010
title Unicamp 2030
source CAAD - Cities - Sustainability [5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2010 / ISBN 978-1-907349-02-7], Fez (Morocco), 19-21 October 2010, pp. 279-286
summary The state university of Campinas, Unicamp, is a public university in upstate São Paulo, Brazil, ranked the second best in the country. It was founded in 1966, and its main campus started to be built in 1967, in the suburbs of Campinas, nowadays a two-million people city. The area of the campus is almost 3 million square meters (300 hectares), with a total built area of 522.000 m2 and a population of 40 thousand people - 30 thousand students, 2 thousand faculty members and almost 8 thousand staff members. The campus’ gross population density is 133 people per hectare. Less than 6% of the total campus area is presently occupied. The design of Unicamp's campus is based on concepts that were typical of the modern movement, with reminiscences of corbusian urbanism, in which preference is given to cars and buildings are spread apart on the territory, with little concern to the circulation of pedestrians. The standard building type that has been built on campus since the 1970's is based on non-recyclable materials, and has a poor thermal performance. Unicamp is expected to double its number of students by the year 2030. The campus density is thus expected to grow from 600 people per hectare to almost 1,000 people per hectare. The need to construct new buildings is seen as an opportunity to correct certain characteristics of the campus that are now seen as mistakes, according to sustainability principles. This paper describes a set of proposals targeting the increase of the campus' density in a sustainable way. The plan also aims at increasing the quality of life on campus and diminishing its impact on the environment. The main targets are: - Reducing the average temperature by 2oC; - Reducing the average displacement time by 15 minutes; - Increasing the campus' density by 100%; - Reducing the CO2 emissions by 50%. // In order to achieve these goals, the following actions have been proposed: Developing a new standard building for the university, incorporating sustainability issues, such as the use of renewable and/or recyclable materials, the installation of rainwater storage tanks, the use of natural ventilation for cooling, sitting the buildings in such a way to decrease thermal gain, and other issues that are required for sustainable buildings' international certifications. To assess the performance of the new standard building, different simulation software were used, such as CFD for checking ventilation, light simulation software to assess energy consumption, and so on. 1. Filling up under-utilized urban areas in the campus with new buildings, to make better use of unused infrastructure and decrease the distance between buildings. 2. Proposing new bicycle paths in and outside campus, and proposing changes in the existing bicycle path to improve its safety. 3. Developing a landscape design plan that aims at creating shaded pedestrian and bicycle passageways.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2011/03/01 06:36

_id sigradi2016_615
id sigradi2016_615
authors Almeida , Rafael Goffinet de; Santos, Fábio Lopes Souza
year 2016
title Um olhar sobre a relação entre sujeitos e meios técnicos: O público como construção social mediada [Looking at the relationship between subjects and technical means: The audience as mediated social construction]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.872-879
summary This article analyses some of the proposals produced in the late 1970´s by the American contemporary artist Dan Graham, in which he uses technical means to investigate the audience´s perception and behavior. The questions raised highlight reciprocity phenomena and identity constructions – factors that affect our experience and behavior in contemporary cities daily life. All of these issues derive from Graham´s investigations of the main information and communication technologies (media) produced at that time, and which continue to offer reflections on current relationship between technical means and the subject – that is, his/her condition as audience, observer, spectator or user.
keywords Dan Graham; Contemporary art; Contemporary Architecture and City; Technical means; Contemporary spatiality
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2017/06/21 12:49

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id sigradi2017_096
id sigradi2017_096
authors Cury Paraizo, Rodrigo; Cintia Mechler, Gabriel Cordeiro Gaspar
year 2017
title Exposição de pavilhões brasileiros em realidade aumentada [Showcasing World Expo Brazilian pavilions in augmented reality]
source SIGraDi 2017 [Proceedings of the 21th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-227-439-5] Chile, Concepción 22 - 24 November 2017, pp.666-673
summary This article describes an augmented reality exposition of three Brazilian World Expo pavilions. The study of Expo pavilions allow us to perceive several historic and cultural narratives embodied in those designs. The selected pavilions were from 1939 New York World’s Fair (by Oscar Niemeyer and Lucio Costa), 1958 Brussels World’s Fair (by Sergio Bernardes) and 1970 Osaka Expo ’70 (by Paulo Mendes da Rocha). The exposition is going to be held at the main campus of UFRJ, using Layar technology with minor adaptations to show the models in natural scale along with their corresponding information, discussing locative media opportunities regarding Architecture and Virtual Heritage.
series SIGraDi
last changed 2018/07/27 08:08

_id ecaade2009_093
id ecaade2009_093
authors Elkær, Tim Nøhr
year 2009
title Using Computers to Aid Creativity in the Early Stages of Design – or Not!: Rehabilitating the 2D/3D physical representation in Computer-Aided-Ideation
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 761-768
wos WOS:000334282200092
summary The introduction of Rapid Prototyping technology such as 3D printers and diverse Numerically Controlled machines such as laser cutters and milling machines, has made it obvious for many educational institutions, that a paradigm shift is occurring these years, that will forever change the design- and architectural practice, - for better or worse. This paper discusses the current change of role and status of the representation as a means to communicate design in the digital era. It outlines two opposite directions for the development of software technology, and brings forward previous and current research, on the didactic aspects of introducing digital software into the curriculum of architecture and design education. The paper describes a workshop held at the Danish Design School, where students proficient in using digital media, were challenged to use analogue models instead, to rediscover and utilize some of the creative potentials offered by this medium. Two other workshops discussing similar themes with different foci and different participants have been held since. One hosted by the Glass & Ceramic School on Bornholm, where the students are trained as traditional Craftsmen and another hosted by Nordes2009 at AHO in Oslo, where the participants came with a background in the research community. My own research interest lies in establishing or refueling a discussion on the importance of the ambiguity in a physical representation, as opposed to the finite interpretations offered by the digital modeling environment, that the profession is accustomed to work within. This interest has recently been confirmed and renewed by reading “The (soft) Architecture Machine(s)” from 1970+75 and by studying the works of Professor Julio Bermudez and Professor Bennett Neiman.
keywords Ideation, representation, ambiguity, heuristics, design education
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 70c4
authors Gross, M.D., Do, E.Y.-L. and Johnson, B.R.
year 2000
title Beyond the low-hanging fruit: Information technology in architectural design past, present and future
source W. Mitchell and J. Fernandez (eds), ACSA Technology Conference, MIT Press, Cambridge MA
summary Today's commercial CAD software is the product of years of research that began in the 1960's and 1970's. These applications have found widespread use in the architectural marketplace; nevertheless they represent only the first fruits of research in computer aided design. New developments based on research in human-computer interaction (HCI), computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW), and virtual reality (VR) will result in a next generation of tools for architectural design. Although preliminary applications to design have been demonstrated in each of these areas, excellent opportunities remain to exploit new technologies and insights in service of better design software. In this paper we briefly examine each of these areas using examples from our own work to discuss the prospects for future research. We envision that future design technologies will develop from current and traditional conventions of practice combined with forward looking application of emerging technologies. In HCI, pen based interaction will allow architects to use the pencil again, without sacrificing the added power of computer aided design tools, and speech recognition will begin to play a role in capturing and retrieving design critique and discussion. In CSCW, a new generation of applications will address the needs of designers more closely than current general purpose meeting tools. In VR, applications are possible that use the technology not simply to provide a sense of three-dimensional presence, but that organize design information spatially, integrating it into the representation of artifacts and places.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 69b3
authors Markelin, Antero
year 1993
title Efficiency of Model Endoscopic Simulation - An Experimental Research at the University of Stuttgart
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 31-34
summary At the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart early experiments were made with the help of endoscopes in the late 1970’s. The intention was to find new instruments to visualize urban design projects. The first experiment included the use of a 16 mm film of a 1:170 scale model of the market place at Karlsruhe, including design alternatives (with trees, without trees etc). The film was shown to the Karlsruhe authorities, who had to make the decision about the alternatives. It was said, that the film gave a great help for the decision-making and a design proposition had never before been presented in such understandable way. In 1975-77, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) an investigation was carried out into existing endoscopic simulation facilities, such as those in Wageningen, Lund and Berkeley. The resulting publication was mainly concerned with technical installations and their applications. However a key question remained: ”Can reality be simulated with endoscopy?” In 1979-82, in order to answer that question, at the Institute was carried out the most extensive research of the time, into the validity of endoscopic simulation. Of special importance was the inclusion of social scientists and psychologists from the University of Heidelberg and Mannheim. A report was produced in 1983. The research was concerned with the theory of model simulation, its ways of use and its users, and then the establishment of requirements for effective model simulation. For the main research work with models or simulation films, psychological tests were developed which enabled a tested person to give accurate responses or evidence without getting involved in alien technical terminology. It was also thought that the use of semantic differentials would make the work imprecise or arbitrary.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2
authors Montagu, Arturo
year 1998
title Desde La Computacion Grafica a los Sistemas CAD Actuales. Una Vision Historica de la Revolucion Producida en los Sistemas de Representacion Grafica (1966-1998) (From Graphical Computation to Present CAD Systems. An Historical Vision of the Revolution Produced in the Systems of Graphical Representation (1966-1998))
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 14-21
summary Throughout these pages are made known the persons, the projects and the books that have influenced my actions and that they will be mentioned in form underlined in this paper. I have to emphasize that since 1965 to 1970, and in the continuous search that I was accomplishing to find data and bibliography adapted to the topic of computer graphics, only two series of publications contained topics related to this matter at that time: one was the IBM Journal and the other series was the communications of the ACM. The purpose of this work is to make known an experience accomplished throughout 30 years of intense activity in finding new methods of drawing and design, based on the use of digital computers, mainly in Argentina, and during certain periods of time in Great Britain and since 1971 during short visits to the United States and also in France. The first idea emerged in the year 1965 when I was assistant teacher at the School of Architecture of the University of Buenos Aires, as a combination of ideas between the concepts of spatial geometry and the current morphological studies that we taught in the Course of professor Gaston Breyer. However the idea of automatic drawing emerged observing the operation of the first scientific digital computer installed in the Computing Institute of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires in 1963 (Sadosky 1963). At the beginning, the approach to the computer were not accomplished from a strictly scientific point of view, but it was implying a kind of "sincresis" (Koheler 1940) it is more than a synthesis, because I was tried to combine ideas that have had its origin in different worlds of thinking, the analogous world and the digital world, and this situation was very difficult to accept at that time.The designing procedures in the decade 1960's was deeply rooted (and still continues) in the architectural design field as a result of a drawing process based in heuristic techniques.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 7134
authors Penttilä, Hannu (Ed.)
year 2001
title Architectural Information Management [Conference Proceedings]
source 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1 / Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, 578 p.
summary Several common phrases, such as “information society” or “virtual reality” point out the fact that information technology, digital tools and numerous different services via various communication networks have become crucially important factors of our western lifestyle and living environment. The trends of the society reflects naturally the working environments of the construction field, architectural discipline being amongst them. It is almost inconceivable to even imagine an architect without computer-based tools anymore. This evolutional development process has, from historical perspective, only recently started. The process is constantly evolving and rapidly increasing our possibilities to use and enjoy these modern digital fruits. The sometimes unpredictable and rapid changes in our working environment should make architects nervous about the impacts of the changes. All those delicate methods and collective traditions of the several thousand year architectural discipline(!), just simply cannot be transferred into the digital realm in a few decades. Researchers and teachers should very carefully, but still open mindedly, critically explore, analyse and adjust the so-called “modern technology” into the world of architecture, construction, design, planning – and education. We are not just “endusers”, It is we, in fact, who should define what, where and how are we willing to use it(IT). The value of information is constantly growing in our society, and in the future it will evidently be even more so. The value of information is quite hard to define with measurable or agreed concepts, but information evidently contains value-factors. The information which the architects are creating, modifying and manipulating, contains essential and valuable core data concerning the whole built environment of our society. It affects the physical surroundings of our society, in which we will be living for decades – hence, the information has a historical basis. The architectural core information also very strongly affects the quality of life of our fellow citizens – consequently, it has deep social meaning. The essentials of architectural information relies on the tradition of centuries – hence, it clearly has acknowledged cultural values, which are also extremely difficult to quantify. So how could architectural information be described? The information covers a wide range of heterogeneous concepts, items, values, methods, tools, materials, true facts, rumours, intuition and knowledge, plus a multitude of yet undefined or unpredictable factors, which still have to be watched and prepared for. Since the information deals with common and general subjects, it should also be described with common and general concepts. On the other hand as the information is also concerned with the minutiae of specific projects, the architectural information should also be described with well identified and unique entities. With our digital tools we handle all information – including architectural – more and more digitally. We have to handle and manipulate information currently as digital data, which could be understood the ”raw material” of architectural information. Digital data becomes valuable information, when some kind of meaning or purpose to somebody can be attributed to it. In the early gloomy days of ”digital architecture” in the 1960’s and 1970’s, researchers tried to describe architectural artefacts and even design process mathematically. The details of architectural information were quite difficult to describe with binary alphanumeric information of main-frame machines. The architects’ tools development then led to a trend where architects could better represent and visualize the design objects digitally. The widespread and common use of 2D-drawing and 3D-modelling tools is still a very strong trend within our discipline. In fact it is “the way” the majority of architectural information is managed today. During the last 15–20 years, so-called conceptual modelling or product data modelling, done in various technical and construction field research units worldwide, has from one viewpoint clarified the basis and essence of architectural information. Hence, it’s not only CAD-software application development, but also elementary and theoretical research that gives us valuable help to survive among the ever growing seas of terabits of data in the future to come. Architectural information is something that simply cannot be described just with DWG-drawings or dummy scanned photographs any more. Although drawings and photos may contain very important bits of architectural documentation, we need ntimes more “complexity layers”, concepts and tools to manage and understand the essence of architectural information today. A proper way to manage the data we are working with, has to cover the whole architectural discipline. The methods and tools also have to be valid and flexible for several decades in the future.
keywords Information Management & Data Structuring, Education & Curricula, Modeling & City Planning
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 642a
authors Stacey, Michael
year 1999
title Digital Design and the Architecture of Brookes Stacey Randall
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-9
summary I am an architect who has the experience of using computers. A user and not an expert in digital design, therefore what follows is a foot soldier's report from my practice over the past 10 to 11 years, including the role of computers in our approach to creating architecture. I began my working life tending IBM mainframes for the British Shoe Corporation. The two IBM mainframe computers were state of the art computer technology of the mid 1970's. There were two as one was used, and the other we needed for backup. The developments in computing in terms of size, increase in storage capacity and faster processing speed over the past 30 years, is a technological acceleration which is difficult to visualize. The IBM historian in the UK suggested "that if cars had developed in the same way they would be given away free with corn flakes". A frightening thought as our cities grind under the pressure of increased car ownership. British Shoe Corporation also had a reserve system some sixty miles away and a halon extinguishing system in case of fire - such was the capital and commercial value of the system. We carried out transitional computing for a number of European countries. The CAD was limited - pen potters drawing shoes, drawing them less well than an average A level or high school student! My interest was primarily in art and not computers; my aim to earn enough to tour Europe to see key work 'in the flesh' not just in reproduction.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id caadria2005_a_8c_e
id caadria2005_a_8c_e
authors Uttiya Bhattacharya
year 2005
title Modeling Designing: Cognitive Models of the Design Process Using A Semantic Approach
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 465-472
summary This text is about research in design methods that the author hopes to undertake in the future. The objective of the research is to devise a cognitive model of designing, using empirical means of studying designers at work. The purpose of this proposal with respect to the research is to present it to an audience – preferably as a poster session, and examine possible strengths and weaknesses in the proposal. Apart from the obvious benefits that accompany any external scrutiny, there would be the advantage of presenting some independently incubated ideas to the rigors of an established realm of research. During the course of the presentation, there is an examination of the Design Methods Movement of the 1970’s, followed by an inquiry into its apparent failure. Subsequently, empirical studies in design research that have been undertaken are discussed – followed by a proposal to use verbal utterances in designing, and semantically map them with an ontology modeler like KAON. Instead, the author proposes to use an ontology-instance modeler to record and disseminate verbal utterances, and thus form a cognitive model of designing. Words spoken during designing – and presenting design – can be coded, and used to form a cognitive model, using the parameters of concept, property and instance that KAON uses. The author also presents a tentative methodology of empirically observing designers at work, and modeling designing using KAON. In conclusion, it is established that such research would help develop a cognitive model of designing – more that one that is computational – but would nevertheless rely heavily on computational support. Moreover, such analysis would also need pro-active collaboration of the designers being studied.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id sigradi2013_117
id sigradi2013_117
authors Alves Veloso, Pedro L.; Anja Pratschke
year 2013
title Uma Arqueologia de Diagramas Cibernéticos [An Archaeology of Cybernetic Diagrams]
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 353 - 356
summary This paper investigates the use of explicit structures of information in architectural design. Particularly, it approaches the use of diagrams related to cybernetics and information theory in experimental practices in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It analyses the diagram of cybernetic control proposed by the cybernetician Gordon Pask for the Fun Palace, the diagrams produced by the utopian architect Yona Friedman in the conceptual description of the Flatwriter program and Christopher Alexander’s diagrams and his theories of Synthesis of Form and Pattern Language. Finally it establishes a brief parallel between current domestication and use of dataflow programming with the cybernetic diagrams, highlighting differences in their complexity approach.
keywords Dataflow diagrams; Cybernetics; Complexity
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2014_108
id sigradi2014_108
authors Alves, Gilfranco Medeiros; Anja Pratschke
year 2014
title De Uexküll à Pask: a Conversação aplicada à Processos Digitais de Projeto [From Uexküll to Pask: Conversation applied to Didital Design Process]
source SIGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 82-85
summary The paper will present one specific aspect of the PhD research called Cibersemiótica e Processos de Projeto: Metodologia em Revisão, funded by FAPESP, which in turn is linked to the Nomads.usp research group of the University of São Paulo. The paper discusses the relevance of communication and information management in the digital design processes from the synchronic study of concepts such as feedback loop, control and self-regulation. These concepts are present in both biosemiotic and interactive design of functional cycle proposed in 1934 by biologist Jakob von Uexküll, as in cybernetic development proposed by Gordon Pask in his sophisticated Conversation Theory in the early 1970’s.
keywords Biosemiotics; Cybernetics; Cybersemiotics; Conversation Theory; functional cycle;
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ecaaderis2018_116
id ecaaderis2018_116
authors Giannopoulou, Effimia, Montás Laracuente, Nelson Bernardo and Baquero, Pablo
year 2018
title Qualitative Study on two Kinetic System Simulations - Experiments Based on Shape Memory Material and Stepper Motors
source Odysseas Kontovourkis (ed.), Sustainable Computational Workflows [6th eCAADe Regional International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 9789491207143], Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, 24-25 May 2018, pp. 95-102
keywords This investigation intends to compare two computational design experiments operating on two kinetic architecture (Zuk and Clark 1970) design application domains: Shape-memory material (SMM) activated grids and stepper-actuated (SA) responsive skins. In the first one, the goal was to build a standard way of simulating SMM, which can be used as actuators in the construction of kinetic structures and in the second, to simulate and construct a responsive skin according to human interaction using kinect and stepper motors. In both experiments, a similar generative workflow was employed, combining insights from materials and mechanical systems. The objective is to investigate kinetic performance, kinetic design methodology, simulation implementation and applications within the two separate design domains. The general hypothesis is that both experiments become design workflows in themselves as real-time, dynamic modeling systems. A qualitatively study of both sets of cases, is taking in count general, simulation and application aspects, using evaluation criteria including workflow, material quantity, data capture and mechanical properties.
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/05/29 12:33

_id ddss9436
id ddss9436
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 1994
title Indexing the Electronic Sketchbook: Diagrams as Keys to Visual Databases
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The question is how to index a visual database. Consider a visual database -- collection of drawings, three-dimensional models, scanned photographs, video, and text -- as a kind of modernmultimedia architectural sketchbook. It can be shared among a wide group of users with different purposes, and who may think about the contents in rather different ways. The connections -- perhaps hypertext -- among the entries may be complex and the organization difficult to comprehend. How then, to index the collection? Certainly traditional techniques -- looking for a concert hail -- built of concrete and glass -- in the 1970's in Utrecht and the architect's name is H* -- will help. But suppose we do not know so precisely what we are looking for? Might we appeal to the language of diagram? Can we add to our schemes for search and retrieval a diagrammatic index? We propose to try this idea. The paper describes our "computer as cocktail napkin" system for recognizing and interpreting diagrams. It consists of a pen-based freehand sketching program that recognizes simple symbols the user has trained (such as lines, shapes, letters, etc.) and spatial arrangements of these symbols. A graphical search procedure finds occurrences of a drawn configuration of symbols in the pages of a sketchbook made using the program. By extending thepages of the sketchbook to include photos, drawings, and text in addition to diagrams, we can use this technique to find items whose diagrams match a drawn search configuration. The paper will demonstrate this prototype program and explore its use for indexing visualdatabases in architecture.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ecaade2007_042
id ecaade2007_042
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 2007
title Pattern Language and Embedded Knowledge in Building Information Modeling
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 457-464
summary When Christopher Alexander (1977), trained both as a mathematician and an architect, published his seminal work “The Pattern Language” in the 1970’s and introduced the concept of “pattern language”, computers were still in their infancy, CAD did not exist as we know it today, and computer information modeling was not even in the radar screen of researchers. Design communication simply meant manual drafting. With the concept of ‘pattern language” (, Alexander proposed a systematic method for dealing with complexity, which proved itself to be more relevant than ever in the digital age. The concept is often cited by computer scientists as a precursor to object oriented modeling. This study explores the potential of “pattern language” for structuring building information and design knowledge within the framework of the recent developments in building information modeling (BIM). In this article, comparisons to the approach taken by the software engineering industry who embraced the idea of “patterns” as a systematic way to software development are also made. While Alexander’s pattern language proposes a method with which the designer can incorporate his/her experiences and design vision systematically into the process of designing, software industry’s approach to patterns describes a method for providing problem and solution patterns (i.e. prototypes) that can be used repeatedly during software development. There is obviously a significant difference between the original intent of the “pattern language” and the way it was later used in other fields including software engineering and business solutions. At the cross section of architectural design and software engineering, Building Information Modeling (BIM) software can benefit from carefully incorporating a combination of these two approaches into its structure as patterns.
keywords Building information modeling, Christopher Alexander, pattern language, software development
series eCAADe
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id cf2005_1_31_28
id cf2005_1_31_28
authors PENG Chengzhi
year 2005
title Townscaping: Development of Dynamic Virtual City Augmented 3D Sketch Design Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 105-114
summary The paper presents the development of an experimental Web-based design environment called Townscaping to be used at the conceptual stage of architectural and urban design. Inspired by Gordon Cullen's seminal work on Townscape (1960's-1970's), the idea of Townscaping is to explore how 3D digital sketch design tools could be developed to operate in connection with a dynamic virtual city system under a user's direct control. A prototype of Townscaping has been designed and implemented on the basis of an existing dynamic virtual city system. In Townscaping, a set of tools is provided for users to create and edit 3D graphic elements to be positioned directly onto the user-specified virtual city models. One of the key features of Townscaping is to enable sketching while navigation: designers can perform sketch design and gain immediate visual feedback while navigating the 3D virtual city models to any viewpoint at any moment. The current study suggests that it is feasible for virtual city models to serve as interactive urban contexts for 3D sketch design. Townscaping is considered primarily a research platform with which we are interested in investigating if designers' engaging in 3D space conceptions may be enhanced through interacting and sketching with virtual townscapes.
keywords virtual city, 3D sketch design, interactive urban visualisation, web-based design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

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